# Types and Formats

This section describes the various types that can be assigned to a **measure**.
A measure can only have one type.

The `sql`

parameter is required and can take any valid SQL expression that
results in a number or integer. Type `number`

is usually used, when performing
arithmetic operations on measures. Learn more about Calculated
Measures.

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
purchasesRatio: {
sql: `${purchases} / ${count} * 100.0`,
type: `number`,
format: `percent`,
},
},
});
```

You can put any sql into `number`

measure as long as it's an aggregate
expression:

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
ratio: {
sql: `sum(${CUBE}.amount) / count(*)`,
type: `number`,
},
},
});
```

Performs a table count, similar to SQL’s `COUNT`

function. However, unlike
writing raw SQL, Cube.js will properly calculate counts even if your query’s
joins will produce row multiplication. You do not need to include a `sql`

parameter for this type.

`drillMembers`

parameter is commonly used with type `count`

. It allows users to
click on the measure in the UI and inspect individual records that make up a
count. Learn more about Drill Downs.

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
numberOfUsers: {
type: `count`,
// optional
drillMembers: [id, name, email, company],
},
},
});
```

Calculates the number of distinct values in a given field. It makes use of SQL’s
`COUNT DISTINCT`

function.

The `sql`

parameter is required and can take any valid SQL expression that
results in a table column, or interpolated JavaScript expression.

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
uniqueUserCount: {
sql: `user_id`,
type: 'countDistinct',
},
},
});
```

Calculates approximate number of distinct values in a given field. Unlike
`countDistinct`

measure type, `countDistinctApprox`

is decomposable aggregate
function or **additive**. This allows its usage in **additive** rollup
pre-aggregations which are much more versatile
than **non-additive** ones. It uses special SQL backend-dependent functions to
estimate distinct counts, usually based on HyperLogLog or similar algorithms.
Wherever possible Cube.js will use multi-stage HLL which significantly improves
calculation of distinct counts at scale.

The `sql`

parameter is required and can take any valid SQL expression.

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
uniqueUserCount: {
sql: `user_id`,
type: 'countDistinctApprox',
},
},
});
```

Adds up the values in a given field. It is similar to SQL’s `SUM`

function.
However, unlike writing raw SQL, Cube.js will properly calculate sums even if
your query’s joins will result in row duplication.

The `sql`

parameter is required and can take any valid SQL expression that
results in a numeric table column, or interpolated JavaScript expression. `sql`

parameter should contain only expression to sum without actual aggregate
function.

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
revenue: {
sql: `${chargesAmount}`,
type: `sum`,
},
},
});
```

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
revenue: {
sql: `amount`,
type: `sum`,
},
},
});
```

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
revenue: {
sql: `fee * 0.1`,
type: `sum`,
},
},
});
```

Averages the values in a given field. It is similar to SQL’s AVG function. However, unlike writing raw SQL, Cube.js will properly calculate averages even if your query’s joins will result in row duplication.

The sql parameter for type: average measures can take any valid SQL expression that results in a numeric table column, or interpolated JavaScript expression.

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
averageTransaction: {
sql: `${transactionAmount}`,
type: `avg`,
},
},
});
```

Type of measure `min`

is calculated as a minimum of values defined in `sql`

.

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
dateFirstPurchase: {
sql: `date_purchase`,
type: `min`,
},
},
});
```

Type of measure `max`

is calculated as a maximum of values defined in `sql`

.

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
dateLastPurchase: {
sql: `date_purchase`,
type: `max`,
},
},
});
```

Type of measure `runningTotal`

is calculated as summation of values defined in
`sql`

. Use it to calculate cumulative measures.

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
totalSubscriptions: {
sql: `subscription_amount`,
type: `runningTotal`,
},
},
});
```

When creating a **measure** you can explicitly define the format you’d like to
see as output.

`percent`

is used for formatting numbers with a percent symbol.

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
purchaseConversion: {
sql: `${purchase}/${checkout}*100.0`,
type: `number`,
format: `percent`,
},
},
});
```

`currency`

is used for monetary values.

```
cube('Orders', {
measures: {
totalAmount: {
sql: `amount`,
type: `runningTotal`,
format: `currency`,
},
},
});
```

This section describes the various types that can be assigned to a
**dimension**. A dimension can only have one type.

In order to be able to create time series charts, Cube.js needs to identify time dimension which is a timestamp column in your database.

You can define several time dimensions in schemas and apply each when creating
charts. Note that type of target column should be `TIMESTAMP`

. Please use this
guide if your datetime information is stored as a string.

```
cube('Orders', {
dimensions: {
completedAt: {
sql: `completed_at`,
type: `time`,
},
},
});
```

`string`

is typically used with fields that contain letters or special
characters. The `sql`

parameter is required and can take any valid SQL
expression.

The following JS code creates a field `fullName`

by combining 2 fields:
`firstName`

and `lastName`

:

```
cube('Orders', {
dimensions: {
fullName: {
sql: `CONCAT(${firstName}, ' ', ${lastName})`,
type: `string`,
},
},
});
```

`number`

is typically used with fields that contain number or integer.

```
cube('Orders', {
dimensions: {
amount: {
sql: `amount`,
type: `number`,
},
},
});
```

`boolean`

is used with fields that contain boolean data or data coercible to
boolean. For example:

```
cube('Orders', {
dimensions: {
isEnabled: {
sql: `is_enabled`,
type: `boolean`,
},
},
});
```

`geo`

dimension is used to display data on the map. Unlike other dimension types
it requires to set two fields: latitude and longitude.

```
cube('Orders', {
dimensions: {
location: {
type: `geo`,
latitude: {
sql: `${CUBE}.latitude`,
},
longitude: {
sql: `${CUBE}.longitude`,
},
},
},
});
```

`imageUrl`

is used for displaying images in table visualization. In this case
`sql`

parameter should contain full path to the image.

```
cube('Orders', {
dimensions: {
image: {
sql: `CONCAT('https://img.example.com/id/', ${id})`,
type: `string`,
format: `imageUrl`,
},
},
});
```

`id`

is used for IDs. It allows to eliminate applying of comma for 5+ digit
numbers which is default for type `number`

. The `sql`

parameter is required and
can take any valid SQL expression.

```
cube('Orders', {
dimensions: {
image: {
sql: `id`,
type: `number`,
format: `id`,
},
},
});
```

`link`

is used for creating hyperlinks. `link`

parameter could be either String
or Object. Use Object, when you want to give a specific label to link. See
examples below for details.

The `sql`

parameter is required and can take any valid SQL expression.

```
cube('Orders', {
dimensions: {
orderLink: {
sql: `'http://myswebsite.com/orders/' || id`,
type: `string`,
format: `link`,
},
crmLink: {
sql: `'https://na1.salesforce.com/' || id`,
type: `string`,
format: {
label: `View in Salesforce`,
type: `link`,
},
},
},
});
```

`currency`

is used for monetary values.

```
cube('Orders', {
dimensions: {
amount: {
sql: `abount`,
type: `number`,
format: `currency`,
},
},
});
```

`percent`

is used for formatting numbers with a percent symbol.

```
cube('Orders', {
dimensions: {
openRate: {
sql: `COALESCE(100.0 * ${uniqOpenCount} / NULLIF(${deliveredCount}, 0), 0)`,
type: `number`,
format: `percent`,
},
},
});
```

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